Tino di Camaino, Funerary monument of Antonio D'Orso
- Tino di Camaino
- Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore
- Specific location
- Counterfaçade, on the right, between the central door and the north door
- Sculpture, gilding, painting
- Height: 392 cm; Width: 305 cm; Depth: 70 cm;
- White marble, gold, pigments
Funerary monument of the bishop of Florence Antonio d'Orso (died in Florence on July 18, 1321), carved in marble and partially gilded, a masterpiece by Tino di Camaino from 1322 around. In its current form, the monument is a hypothetical assembly of the surviving parts, to which must be added the two curtain-holding angels, now in the Museum. Various reconstructions have been attempted but it is almost unanimous that there was once a canopy structure that included the upper part.
The whole is supported by a base resting on three shelves, decorated with a bas-relief depicting the allegory of death: it is depicted, in the center, in the form of an armored monster riding a dragon; he has the feet of a lion, three faces and four arms; with the two on the right and the two on the left he tends two arches, with which he shoots groups of figures at the ends, among which nobles, kings and high prelates can be recognized, some already reduced to skeletons. Above, there is the sarcophagus, rectangular case shaped, supported by three lions and decorated on the front side by a bas-relief representing the personal judgment of the deceased, in the form of the "Commendatio animae" of the deceased. relief representing the personal judgment of the deceased, in the form of the "Commendatio animae": Antonio D'Orso is in the centre, facing on his knees Christ, who stands before him, enthroned, as judge. In fact, the prelate hands him a scroll, or the "Book of Life", on which his merits and his sins are listed. She introduces him as a lawyer, the Virgin, followed by the Holy women. Behind Christ, to help him in judging or perhaps to intercede, we recognize St. Peter with the keys and St. Paul with the sword (i.e. the princes of the Church of which the bishop was pastor) and the Baptist, protector of Florence, where D 'Orso had the bishop's chair. The scene is enclosed between two triplets of angelsOn the sides there are two coats of arms walled into the wall: on the right that of Gaetani, for reference to Pope Boniface VIII, under whose pontificate D'Orso became bishop, and on the left that of Clement V, in whose time Antonio D'Orso led a large part of his pastoral office.
At the top is the portrait of the deceased, seated in a chair, in bishop's clothes. He keeps his arms folded on his knees and his head tilted to the right, his eyes are closed and his expression is serene. His facial features are very characterized and emaciated and were perhaps taken from the death mask.
In the stretch of the underlying wall there is the inscription with the "signature" of the sculptor.
The iconographic program was probably conceived by Francesco da Barberino, notary, poet and executor of Bishop D'Orso's will. The very singular invention of the portrait of the deceased seated, rather than lying down, is innovative: it refers to the custom of displaying the body of deceased prelates in the cathedral and perhaps also recalls the tradition according to which the bishop died during the celebration of a pontifical. But on a theological level, the figure of the deceased who abandons himself to sleep has a meaning linked to hope in the resurrection, by reference to Christ's words to the evangelical episode of the resurrection of Jairus' daughter (Mark 5, 39): "Why this commotion and weeping? The child is not dead but asleep". The bishop's folded arms and serene expression seem to allude to his faith in the salvation of his soul, that is, to his particular Judgment, which is depicted on the front of the sarcophagus; and therefore also in the eschatological expectation, i.e. in the Final Judgment and in the victory over the terrible archer of the base.